# Descriptive Statistics and Graphics

Descriptive statistics consist of describing simply the data using some summary statistics and graphics. Here, we’ll describe how to compute summary statistics using R software.

# Import your data into R

1. Prepare your data as specified here: Best practices for preparing your data set for R

2. Save your data in an external .txt tab or .csv files

3. Import your data into R as follow:

``````# If .txt tab file, use this
# Or, if .csv file, use this

Here, we’ll use the built-in R data set named iris.

``````# Store the data in the variable my_data
my_data <- iris``````

# Check your data

You can inspect your data using the functions head() and tails(), which will display the first and the last part of the data, respectively.

``````# Print the first 6 rows
``````  Sepal.Length Sepal.Width Petal.Length Petal.Width Species
1          5.1         3.5          1.4         0.2  setosa
2          4.9         3.0          1.4         0.2  setosa
3          4.7         3.2          1.3         0.2  setosa
4          4.6         3.1          1.5         0.2  setosa
5          5.0         3.6          1.4         0.2  setosa
6          5.4         3.9          1.7         0.4  setosa``````

# R functions for computing descriptive statistics

Some R functions for computing descriptive statistics:

Description R function
Mean mean()
Standard deviation sd()
Variance var()
Minimum min()
Maximum maximum()
Median median()
Range of values (minimum and maximum) range()
Sample quantiles quantile()
Generic function summary()
Interquartile range IQR()

The function mfv(), for most frequent value, [in modeest package] can be used to find the statistical mode of a numeric vector.

# Descriptive statistics for a single group

## Measure of central tendency: mean, median, mode

Roughly speaking, the central tendency measures the “average” or the “middle” of your data. The most commonly used measures include:

• the mean: the average value. It’s sensitive to outliers.
• the median: the middle value. It’s a robust alternative to mean.
• and the mode: the most frequent value

In R,

• The function mean() and median() can be used to compute the mean and the median, respectively;
• The function mfv() [in the modeest R package] can be used to compute the mode of a variable.

The R code below computes the mean, median and the mode of the variable Sepal.Length [in my_data data set]:

``````# Compute the mean value
mean(my_data\$Sepal.Length)``````
``[1] 5.843333``
``````# Compute the median value
median(my_data\$Sepal.Length)``````
``[1] 5.8``
``````# Compute the mode
# install.packages("modeest")
require(modeest)
mfv(my_data\$Sepal.Length)``````
``[1] 5``

## Measure of variablity

Measures of variability gives how “spread out” the data are.

### Range: minimum & maximum

• Range corresponds to biggest value minus the smallest value. It gives you the full spread of the data.
``````# Compute the minimum value
min(my_data\$Sepal.Length)``````
``[1] 4.3``
``````# Compute the maximum value
max(my_data\$Sepal.Length)``````
``[1] 7.9``
``````# Range
range(my_data\$Sepal.Length)``````
``[1] 4.3 7.9``

### Interquartile range

Recall that, quartiles divide the data into 4 parts. Note that, the interquartile range (IQR) - corresponding to the difference between the first and third quartiles - is sometimes used as a robust alternative to the standard deviation.

• R function:
``quantile(x, probs = seq(0, 1, 0.25))``

• x: numeric vector whose sample quantiles are wanted.
• probs: numeric vector of probabilities with values in [0,1].

• Example:
``quantile(my_data\$Sepal.Length)``
``````  0%  25%  50%  75% 100%
4.3  5.1  5.8  6.4  7.9 ``````

By default, the function returns the minimum, the maximum and three quartiles (the 0.25, 0.50 and 0.75 quartiles).

To compute deciles (0.1, 0.2, 0.3, …., 0.9), use this:

``quantile(my_data\$Sepal.Length, seq(0, 1, 0.1))``

To compute the interquartile range, type this:

``IQR(my_data\$Sepal.Length)``
``[1] 1.3``

### Variance and standard deviation

The variance represents the average squared deviation from the mean. The standard deviation is the square root of the variance. It measures the average deviation of the values, in the data, from the mean value.

``````# Compute the variance
var(my_data\$Sepal.Length)
# Compute the standard deviation =
# square root of th variance
sd(my_data\$Sepal.Length)``````

### Median absolute deviation

The median absolute deviation (MAD) measures the deviation of the values, in the data, from the median value.

``````# Compute the median
median(my_data\$Sepal.Length)
# Compute the median absolute deviation

### Which measure to use?

• Range. It’s not often used because it’s very sensitive to outliers.
• Interquartile range. It’s pretty robust to outliers. It’s used a lot in combination with the median.
• Variance. It’s completely uninterpretable because it doesn’t use the same units as the data. It’s almost never used except as a mathematical tool
• Standard deviation. This is the square root of the variance. It’s expressed in the same units as the data. The standard deviation is often used in the situation where the mean is the measure of central tendency.
• Median absolute deviation. It’s a robust way to estimate the standard deviation, for data with outliers. It’s not used very often.

In summary, the IQR and the standard deviation are the two most common measures used to report the variability of the data.

## Computing an overall summary of a variable and an entire data frame

### summary() function

The function summary() can be used to display several statistic summaries of either one variable or an entire data frame.

• Summary of a single variable. Five values are returned: the mean, median, 25th and 75th quartiles, min and max in one single line call:
``summary(my_data\$Sepal.Length)``
``````   Min. 1st Qu.  Median    Mean 3rd Qu.    Max.
4.300   5.100   5.800   5.843   6.400   7.900 ``````
• Summary of a data frame. In this case, the function summary() is automatically applied to each column. The format of the result depends on the type of the data contained in the column. For example:
• If the column is a numeric variable, mean, median, min, max and quartiles are returned.
• If the column is a factor variable, the number of observations in each group is returned.
``summary(my_data, digits = 1)``
``````  Sepal.Length  Sepal.Width  Petal.Length  Petal.Width        Species
Min.   :4     Min.   :2    Min.   :1     Min.   :0.1   setosa    :50
1st Qu.:5     1st Qu.:3    1st Qu.:2     1st Qu.:0.3   versicolor:50
Median :6     Median :3    Median :4     Median :1.3   virginica :50
Mean   :6     Mean   :3    Mean   :4     Mean   :1.2
3rd Qu.:6     3rd Qu.:3    3rd Qu.:5     3rd Qu.:1.8
Max.   :8     Max.   :4    Max.   :7     Max.   :2.5                  ``````

### sapply() function

It’s also possible to use the function sapply() to apply a particular function over a list or vector. For instance, we can use it, to compute for each column in a data frame, the mean, sd, var, min, quantile, …

``````# Compute the mean of each column
sapply(my_data[, -5], mean)``````
``````Sepal.Length  Sepal.Width Petal.Length  Petal.Width
5.843333     3.057333     3.758000     1.199333 ``````
``````# Compute quartiles
sapply(my_data[, -5], quantile)``````
``````     Sepal.Length Sepal.Width Petal.Length Petal.Width
0%            4.3         2.0         1.00         0.1
25%           5.1         2.8         1.60         0.3
50%           5.8         3.0         4.35         1.3
75%           6.4         3.3         5.10         1.8
100%          7.9         4.4         6.90         2.5``````

### stat.desc() function

The function stat.desc() [in pastecs package], provides other useful statistics including:

• the median
• the mean
• the standard error on the mean (SE.mean)
• the confidence interval of the mean (CI.mean) at the p level (default is 0.95)
• the variance (var)
• the standard deviation (std.dev)
• and the variation coefficient (coef.var) defined as the standard deviation divided by the mean

• Install pastecs package

``install.packages("pastecs")``
• Use the function stat.desc() to compute descriptive statistics
``````# Compute descriptive statistics
library(pastecs)
res <- stat.desc(my_data[, -5])
round(res, 2)``````
``````             Sepal.Length Sepal.Width Petal.Length Petal.Width
nbr.val            150.00      150.00       150.00      150.00
nbr.null             0.00        0.00         0.00        0.00
nbr.na               0.00        0.00         0.00        0.00
min                  4.30        2.00         1.00        0.10
max                  7.90        4.40         6.90        2.50
range                3.60        2.40         5.90        2.40
sum                876.50      458.60       563.70      179.90
median               5.80        3.00         4.35        1.30
mean                 5.84        3.06         3.76        1.20
SE.mean              0.07        0.04         0.14        0.06
CI.mean.0.95         0.13        0.07         0.28        0.12
var                  0.69        0.19         3.12        0.58
std.dev              0.83        0.44         1.77        0.76
coef.var             0.14        0.14         0.47        0.64``````

## Case of missing values

Note that, when the data contains missing values, some R functions will return errors or NA even if just a single value is missing.

For example, the mean() function will return NA if even only one value is missing in a vector. This can be avoided using the argument na.rm = TRUE, which tells to the function to remove any NAs before calculations. An example using the mean function is as follow:

``mean(my_data\$Sepal.Length, na.rm = TRUE)``

## Graphical display of distributions

The R package ggpubr will be used to create graphs.

• Install the latest version from GitHub as follow:
``````# Install
if(!require(devtools)) install.packages("devtools")
devtools::install_github("kassambara/ggpubr")``````
• Or, install from CRAN as follow:
``install.packages("ggpubr")``
• Load ggpubr as follow:
``library(ggpubr)``

### Box plots

``ggboxplot(my_data, y = "Sepal.Length", width = 0.5)``

### Histogram

Histograms show the number of observations that fall within specified divisions (i.e., bins).

Histogram plot of Sepal.Length with mean line (dashed line).

``````gghistogram(my_data, x = "Sepal.Length", bins = 9,

### Empirical cumulative distribution function (ECDF)

ECDF is the fraction of data smaller than or equal to x.

``ggecdf(my_data, x = "Sepal.Length")``

### Q-Q plots

QQ plots is used to check whether the data is normally distributed.

``ggqqplot(my_data, x = "Sepal.Length")``

# Descriptive statistics by groups

To compute summary statistics by groups, the functions group_by() and summarise() [in dplyr package] can be used.

• We want to group the data by Species and then:
• compute the number of element in each group. R function: n()
• compute the mean. R function mean()
• and the standard deviation. R function sd()

The function %>% is used to chaine operations.

• Install ddplyr as follow:
``install.packages("dplyr")``
• Descriptive statistics by groups:
``````library(dplyr)
group_by(my_data, Species) %>%
summarise(
count = n(),
mean = mean(Sepal.Length, na.rm = TRUE),
sd = sd(Sepal.Length, na.rm = TRUE)
)``````
``````Source: local data frame [3 x 4]
Species count  mean        sd
(fctr) (int) (dbl)     (dbl)
1     setosa    50 5.006 0.3524897
2 versicolor    50 5.936 0.5161711
3  virginica    50 6.588 0.6358796``````
• Graphics for grouped data:
``````library("ggpubr")
# Box plot colored by groups: Species
ggboxplot(my_data, x = "Species", y = "Sepal.Length",
color = "Species",
palette = c("#00AFBB", "#E7B800", "#FC4E07"))``````

``````# Stripchart colored by groups: Species
ggstripchart(my_data, x = "Species", y = "Sepal.Length",
color = "Species",
palette = c("#00AFBB", "#E7B800", "#FC4E07"),

Note that, when the number of observations per groups is small, it’s recommended to use strip chart compared to box plots.

# Frequency tables

A frequency table (or contingency table) is used to describe categorical variables. It contains the counts at each combination of factor levels.

R function to generate tables: table()

## Create some data

Distribution of hair and eye color by sex of 592 students:

``````# Hair/eye color data
df <- as.data.frame(HairEyeColor)
hair_eye_col <- df[rep(row.names(df), df\$Freq), 1:3]
rownames(hair_eye_col) <- 1:nrow(hair_eye_col)
``````   Hair   Eye  Sex
1 Black Brown Male
2 Black Brown Male
3 Black Brown Male
4 Black Brown Male
5 Black Brown Male
6 Black Brown Male``````
``````# hair/eye variables
Hair <- hair_eye_col\$Hair
Eye <- hair_eye_col\$Eye``````

## Simple frequency distribution: one categorical variable

• Table of counts
``````# Frequency distribution of hair color
table(Hair)``````
``````Hair
Black Brown   Red Blond
108   286    71   127 ``````
``````# Frequency distribution of eye color
table(Eye)``````
``````Eye
Brown  Blue Hazel Green
220   215    93    64 ``````
• Graphics: to create the graphics, we start by converting the table as a data frame.
``````# Compute table and convert as data frame
df <- as.data.frame(table(Hair))
df``````
``````   Hair Freq
1 Black  108
2 Brown  286
3   Red   71
4 Blond  127``````
``````# Visualize using bar plot
library(ggpubr)
ggbarplot(df, x = "Hair", y = "Freq")``````

## Two-way contingency table: Two categorical variables

``````tbl2 <- table(Hair , Eye)
tbl2``````
``````       Eye
Hair    Brown Blue Hazel Green
Black    68   20    15     5
Brown   119   84    54    29
Red      26   17    14    14
Blond     7   94    10    16``````

It’s also possible to use the function xtabs(), which will create cross tabulation of data frames with a formula interface.

``xtabs(~ Hair + Eye, data = hair_eye_col)``
• Graphics: to create the graphics, we start by converting the table as a data frame.
``````df <- as.data.frame(tbl2)
``````   Hair   Eye Freq
1 Black Brown   68
2 Brown Brown  119
3   Red Brown   26
4 Blond Brown    7
5 Black  Blue   20
6 Brown  Blue   84``````
``````# Visualize using bar plot
library(ggpubr)
ggbarplot(df, x = "Hair", y = "Freq",
color = "Eye",
palette = c("brown", "blue", "gold", "green"))``````

``````# position dodge
ggbarplot(df, x = "Hair", y = "Freq",
color = "Eye", position = position_dodge(),
palette = c("brown", "blue", "gold", "green"))``````

## Multiway tables: More than two categorical variables

• Hair and Eye color distributions by sex using xtabs():
``xtabs(~Hair + Eye + Sex, data = hair_eye_col)``
``````, , Sex = Male
Eye
Hair    Brown Blue Hazel Green
Black    32   11    10     3
Brown    53   50    25    15
Red      10   10     7     7
Blond     3   30     5     8
, , Sex = Female
Eye
Hair    Brown Blue Hazel Green
Black    36    9     5     2
Brown    66   34    29    14
Red      16    7     7     7
Blond     4   64     5     8``````
• You can also use the function ftable() [for flat contingency tables]. It returns a nice output compared to xtabs() when you have more than two variables:
``ftable(Sex + Hair ~ Eye, data = hair_eye_col)``
``````      Sex   Male                 Female
Hair Black Brown Red Blond  Black Brown Red Blond
Eye
Brown         32    53  10     3     36    66  16     4
Blue          11    50  10    30      9    34   7    64
Hazel         10    25   7     5      5    29   7     5
Green          3    15   7     8      2    14   7     8``````

## Compute table margins and relative frequency

Table margins correspond to the sums of counts along rows or columns of the table. Relative frequencies express table entries as proportions of table margins (i.e., row or column totals).

The function margin.table() and prop.table() can be used to compute table margins and relative frequencies, respectively.

1. Format of the functions:
``````margin.table(x, margin = NULL)
prop.table(x, margin = NULL)``````
• x: table
• margin: index number (1 for rows and 2 for columns)
1. compute table margins:
``````Hair <- hair_eye_col\$Hair
Eye <- hair_eye_col\$Eye
# Hair/Eye color table
he.tbl <- table(Hair, Eye)
he.tbl``````
``````       Eye
Hair    Brown Blue Hazel Green
Black    68   20    15     5
Brown   119   84    54    29
Red      26   17    14    14
Blond     7   94    10    16``````
``````# Margin of rows
margin.table(he.tbl, 1)``````
``````Hair
Black Brown   Red Blond
108   286    71   127 ``````
``````# Margin of columns
margin.table(he.tbl, 2)``````
``````Eye
Brown  Blue Hazel Green
220   215    93    64 ``````
1. Compute relative frequencies:
``````# Frequencies relative to row total
prop.table(he.tbl, 1)``````
``````       Eye
Hair         Brown       Blue      Hazel      Green
Black 0.62962963 0.18518519 0.13888889 0.04629630
Brown 0.41608392 0.29370629 0.18881119 0.10139860
Red   0.36619718 0.23943662 0.19718310 0.19718310
Blond 0.05511811 0.74015748 0.07874016 0.12598425``````
``````# Table of percentages
round(prop.table(he.tbl, 1), 2)*100``````
``````       Eye
Hair    Brown Blue Hazel Green
Black    63   19    14     5
Brown    42   29    19    10
Red      37   24    20    20
Blond     6   74     8    13``````

To express the frequencies relative to the grand total, use this:

``he.tbl/sum(he.tbl)``

# Infos

This analysis has been performed using R software (ver. 3.2.4).

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